The initial note of the alphabetical scale. Its alphabetical primacy was established in the 16th century. In German and English terminology, A corresponds to the note La of France, Italy, Portugal, Latin America and Russia. Glareanus, in his Dodecachordon (1547), fixed A as the tonic of the Aeolian mode. In 1572 Zarlino elevated the Ionian mode to primacy, relegating A to the sixth place of our C major scale. A is the note used for tuning an orchestra, and it is usually given out by the oboe because the oboe is the least affected by humidity or other weather conditions of all wind and string instruments. The frequency for A above middle C is 440 vibrations per second.

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